The sweeteners, having a high sweetening potential, are used for reducing the glucose quantity from aliments or for technological reasons.
Because of the sweeteners, special food products (for instance, for diabetes suffering people) or low caloric content aliments (mostly soft drinks) can be obtained.
The concept of sweetening power has certain limits, because it is connected with the perception of the sweet taste, a subjective aspect differing from one person to another.
Each sweetener has its own sense characteristics; there is not sweetener that can perfectly imitate the taste of sugar, so evaluating a sweetener only on the basis of its sweetening power would prove incomplete.
Adding a sweetener in the solution of another one, besides increasing the intensity of the sweet taste, can positively modify its quality. Thus, the taste quality of certain mixes of sweeteners is better than that of each sweetener taken separately.
ERTRAG exclusively commercializes the BIOSWEET I003 sweetener
the best sweetener mix there is;
it perfectly simulates the taste of sugar;
it is 220 times sweeter than sugar;
it is 10 times cheaper than sugar in the finite product;
dosage of 0.42-0.48:1000;
ingredients: natrium cyclamate, saccharine, aspartame, acesulpham K, maltodextrine.
Synthetic and semi-synthetic sweeteners with a great sweetening power commercialized by ERTRAG:
Acesulpham K (E 950) - was accidentally discovered in 1967. It is found as colorless crystals or as white crystalline powder. At environmental temperature, the acesulpham K crystals have an almost unlimited stability. The sweet taste of acesulpham K appears quickly and it is close to that of small sugar quantities; in large concentration the taste of acesulpham k is altered by a slight bitter residual ingredient, but less strong than that of saccharine. The acesulpham K has a synergetic effect if combined with other sweeteners; the quality of the taste is improved by each sweetener. Because of the very good stability it can be used in most food products: flat or carbonated drinks, milk products, sugar and pastry products, chocolate, and chewing-gum. The energy application is zero.
Aspartame (E 951) - was accidentally discovered in 1967. It is found as a white crystalline powder or granulated. The aspartame decomposes fast in unfavorable pH and temperature conditions. At high temperatures, the decomposing speed rises fast, and this predisposition limits the use of aspartame only to products that do not undergo intense thermal treatments. The taste of aspartame is close to that of sugar, without major parasite nuances. The aspartame has a quite strong synergism if combined with other sweeteners, the combination with acesulpham K and saccharine are the most used ones. The sweetening power of aspartame depends on the nature of the alimental food it is incorporated in; it ranges from 180 to 250. it is used in a variety of products: soft drinks, puddings, instant soft-drinks, toppings, milk products, chewing-gum. The energy application is approximately 16.8 Kj/g, insignificant if taken into consideration the very low concentrations in food products. Although the phenylalanine is an essential amino-acid, in very rare cases (1 in approximately 10,000 persons), because of a metabolic disease (the phenyl intolerance), the phenylalanine can not be absorbed. Therefore, n the label of food products containing aspartame there must be written that they contain traces of phenylalanine. The quantity of phenylalanine in a glass of aspartame sweetened soft drink is 8-10 times smaller than that in a glass of milk.
Cyclamens (E 952) - the sweetening power of cyclamens varies in the limits of 30 to 80, depending on the food product. In high concentrations, the sweet taste of the cyclamates is altered by an unpleasant remanent component. The most commonly used cyclamate is the natrium cyclamate. Mixed with saccharine, it shows a high synergism. It is used for the producing of soft drinks, biscuits and pastry products, jams and canned fruits. Due to its relatively low sweetening power, and to the maximum admitted doses in food products, it is necessary the combination of cyclamens with other sweeteners.
Saccharine (E 954) - was discovered in 1879 . It is found as white colorless crystals . The sweet taste of saccharine develops slower, but after reaching the highest intensity, it is quite persistent. The saccharine has a remanent bitter/metallic taste which gets very pregnant at high concentrations. The sweetening power of saccharine varies between 300 and 500. The saccharine is used in a great variety of products: soft drinks, puddings, instant drinks, toppings, milk products, chewing-gum, canned fruits, jams, jellies, sweet tablets.
Natural sweeteners with great sweetening power:
Braseine - protean substance, extracted from a plant in western Africa , having the sweetening power of approximately 2000, with a very persistent sweet taste.
Curculine - is a protein extracted from the fruit of Curculigo latifolia and has a sweetening power of approximately 550, the sweet taste develops fast and lasts several minutes. A very interesting characteristic of the Curculine is that the sweet taste is felt again if, after having consumed a product with such sweetener, the subject drinks water. If instead of water, a very watered solution of gastric acid is used, the sweet taste is emphasized.
Phylodulcine - is extracted from the leaves of Hydrangea and has the sweetening power of 250 to 400, the sweet taste develops slowly and it is very persistent. The phylodulcine is traditionally used in Japan for sugaring the tea.
Glycyrrhizin - is extracted from the roots of the plant of Glycyrrhiza glabra (sweet wood) and has the sweetening power of 50; the sweet taste is paralyzed by a persistent remanent component; the taste can be improved by combinations with lactose or sorbitol. The glycyrrhizin actions well in products such as caramels, chocolate, ice-cream, chewing-gum and different syrups.
Hernandulcine - is extracted from the Lippia dulcis and has the sweetening power of 1,000 to 1,200, the sweet taste is affected by a bitter remanent component.
Miraculine - comes from the oval fruits of some 2 centimeters in diameter of a species of tropical tree, the sapot tree . It is non-soluble in water. For preparing the sweet taste, the fruit must be frozen. The name of the Miraculine comes from the way it modifies the perception of the sour taste. After consuming a fruit containing Miraculine, acid products with sour taste are perceived as having a strong sweet taste.
Moneline - is a protein extracted from the leaves of the Bace de Nigeria plant. The stability of the moneline in the natural product is very low, so for keeping the swet taste, the fruit must be kept at a temperature under 20° C. The sweetening power of the monoline is between 1,500 and 2,000, the sweet taste is of good quality without bitter remanent component.
Osladine - is extracted from the rhizomes of the Polypodium vulgare , the sweetening power can reach up to 3,000. It is a plant with a quite a high toxicity degree.
Perialtine - is an oxime isolated from the oil extracted from Perrila Nakemonsis Deone and has the sweetening power of aproximately 2,000.
Steviosine - is extracted from the leaves of the Stevia Rebaudiana plant, originated from South America and has a sweetening power of approximatelly 300. The sweet taste is altered by two remanent components, a bitter one and an astringent one. It is not used in commercial activities.
Taumatine (E 957) - is extracted from the Thaumatocus Danielli fruit ("the miraculous fruit of Sudan ), which grows in Ghana , Zair , Sudan , and Togo . The sweetening power ranges between 1,400 and 2,200. The sweet taste is characterised by a quite strong persistence and it is affected by a remanent taste. It is used in sugar products, jams, ice-cream, and chewing-gum.